The history of Mau, a well-known and industrially advanced district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, is quite old. Cultural and archaeological remains of Ramayana and Mahabharata are found everywhere in this area. Although scientific research and excavation efforts have not been done in this direction, but it is confirmed on the basis of geographical and historical evidences and legends. It is said that during the reign of Maharaja Dasharatha in Tretayuga, this place was the penance of the sages. On this Tamasa beach was the ashram of the Adi poet Maharishi Valmiki. It is indisputable that Shri Ramchandra ji had rested on the banks of Tamasa on the first night during the forest journey. The known archival history of Mau is about 1500 years old, when the entire area was a dense forest. The wild and tribal castes used to live around the river flowing here. The oldest inhabitants of this place are considered to be nuts. He also ruled this area.
Baba Malik Tahir arrived around 1028 in this area, settled thousands of years ago on the Tamsa coast. He was a Sufi saint and came here with a detachment of army along with his brother Malik Qasim. The then ruler of these people was sent by Sayyid Shalar Maud Ghazi to capture this area here. At that time, while capturing other parts of the country, Ghazi had come to Satrik in Barabanki and from there he sent troops to capture different parts.
In those days Mau Nut ruled this region. A fierce battle ensued between Mau Nut and Malik brothers over the occupation, in which Mau Nut was cracked (killed) and this area was called Mau Nat Bhanjan which later became Maunath Bhanjan. There are many ideas about this naming of Maunath Bhanjan. Some scholars consider it to be an aberration of the Sanskrit word “peacock”, while some consider it to be a word of Turkish language. The word “mau” in Turkish means a camp or camp. There are many places named Mau, but some local adjectives are attached to them like – Phaphamau, Mau Aima, Jazz Mau, Maunath Bhanjan etc.
After establishing his supremacy over this area, Baba Malik Tahir made his center north of the place where the check is today, which is still known as Malik Tahirpura. Similarly his brother Malik Qasim settled the south of the Czech in the name of Kasimpura. The rank soldiers who were part of Malik Tahir’s army populated the areas at some distance in their own names, which are still present in the form of Husainpura, Bulakipura, Mirzahadipura, Kasimpura, Mohsinpura, Nyaz Muhammadpura, Pathantola, etc. After the arrival of Malik brothers, this area gradually got populated.
After the Deep Nirvana of the Maurya and Gupta kings, this place was under the Jaunpur state during the Mughal rule. Before this, between 1540-1545, the then emperor Sher Shah Suri arrived twice in this area. Sher Shah Suri had come to meet the Sufi saint Mirashah living in the dargah. His daughter Mahabano was living in the company of Mirashah. The old bridge of Mau Nagar, which became dilapidated in the floods of 1956, was built by Sher Shah Suri. It is said that due to the delay in the construction of the bridge, the historic road (Grant Tunk Road) built by Sher Shah Suri from Peshawar to Kolkata could not pass through here.
In 1629, during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, this area was given to his daughter Jahanara. The foundation of the present form of the city was laid during the reign of Jahanara. Jahanara Begum got her residence and Shahi Masjid built here at Katra and for her protection it was converted into a military cantonment. The remains of the barracks built to house the army still exist today. Jahanara had also built an underground tunnel 16 to 17 feet below in the royal Katra area, the remains of which are still found during excavations under the ground. Last year, the two places where bore wells were done in Katra area of the local municipality failed by going 17-18 feet. In the south-west part of the royal chambers in Katra was the residence of the royal family. Here was the relic of Imam Khana till the last days. The furnishings of the royal family were brought here on mules. The generation of those who brought them are still settled here and make their living by doing the work of transportation by mules. Laborers, artisans and other trained laborers also came along with the Mughal family, who gave birth to the art of weaving here. People who spun yarn associated with handloom weaving came and settled here from Gorakhpur. Two mohallas, Katuapura East and Katuapura West were built for his stay. It is told that in the name of brother Aurangzeb Begum Jahanara settled a new mohalla Aurangabad and renamed Maunath Bhanjan after her name as Jahanabad, but this name could not be popular and Maunath Bhanjan continued to progress progressively.
It is noteworthy that when Jahanara Begum was making new constructions here, apart from the laborers who came here with her, most of the people who came here were artisans and the main class among them was the cloth makers who settled here permanently. Most of the artisans who came here were of Iranian, Afghani or Turkish origin. In the local language of Mau, which is considered unique in its own way, most of the words are found in Persian, Turkish and Iranian languages, which have lost their original meaning today.
In the beginning of the eighteenth century, this land was given to Raja Azamshah of Azamgarh after separating it from the rule of Jaunpur. Azam Shah and Azmat Shah were both real brothers. Azamshah built Azamgarh Azmat Shah built Azmatgarh.
In 1801, Azamgarh and Maunath Bhanjan were acquired by the East India Company and this area was included in Gorakhpur district. In the year 1932, Azamgarh was made an independent district, which lasted till 1988 after independence. In the erstwhile district Azamgarh district, maximum revenue was received from Mau, but the effort for its development was negligible. Due to the district headquarters being 45 km away from here, the people of this place had to face great inconvenience. The demand for making Mau a district continued for many years, which was finally fulfilled on November 19, 1988 and Mau was created as a separate district in the map of the state.
After the formation of a new district in the year 1988, this land has been rejuvenated and is on the path of continuous progress.
Mr. kalpnath rai, former MP had played an important role in the creation of Mau district.